Did you know that not all the antibiotics that may be suitable for your dog may not be suitable for your cat? One such example is a common antibiotic called Enrofloxacin (Baytril). Enrofloxacin (Baytril) is a commonly administered antibiotic to dogs however when the same antibiotic if administered to cats may cause retinal toxicity and blindness. The reason is because in cats there are specific amino acid changes in the ABCG2 transporter at the blood-aqueous barrier cause a functional defect of the transport protein, allowing enrofloxacin to enter the inner eye. When light enters the inner eye through the pupil, enrofloxacin is photoactivated to reactive oxygen species that are toxic to the retina of cats. A safer alternative (e.g., marbofloxacin) should be considered.
At Louisville Compounding Pharmacy our veterinary compounding pharmacists and formulation specialist are trained to know these differences. We are always careful to note down the species and their body weight on our prescriptions. Sometimes there are breed specific adverse events in felines and canines....more
Precision is Key
When we compound a cream or gel, a lot of work goes into putting it together just right. The ingredients are weighed out to the thousandth of a gram, the particles are reduced to a fifth the diameter of a human hair, and the whole thing is mixed in a planetary rotation at 2000 rpm. But for all the work we put into making a cream, it wouldn’t be nearly as effective if we didn’t choose the right base.
Why does it Matter?
In compounding, the base is the actual cream or gel we put the active ingredients into. It’s the vehicle that holds the active ingredients together and the driver that gets them where they need to be in your body. But since the chemical structures of each ingredient differ, as does the intent of each cream, we have different bases for different purposes.
For example, men could absorb 2.73 times more testosterone using one base over another so we understand the importance of picking the right one. A pet owner may have trouble giving medication by mouth hence we can convert them to gel or a cream that can simply be applied on...more
Smell is the dog’s most keen sense. A dog’s sense of smell is said to be 1,000 times more sensitive than a human’s. Dogs have an extra olfactory organ called the vomeronasal organ or Jacobson’s organ. This organ is important in detecting pheromones and possibly body scents.
Dogs continually sniff the air, ground and things nearby to get information on what is happening around them. The design of the nostrils accommodates this process. A dog’s nose is usually cool and wet. This moisture captures and dissolves molecules in the air to bring them in contact with the olfactory epithelium inside the nose. Dogs sniff to maximize their detection of odors. When they sniff continuously, washing out of the odor does not occur due to the presence of a nasal pocket created by the bony subethmoidal shelf. This pocket allows the unrecognizable odors to accumulate and interact with the olfactory receptors longer. This process allows information to be passed along to the olfactory nerves and eventually to the dog’s brain aiding the dog in recognizing a scent and following a trail. This...more
Breeds (Pugs, Boston Terriers, Bull Dogs, Mastiffs and Shih Tzus) that have significantly shorter muzzles and tracheas are referred to as brachycephalic. This characteristic predisposes these breeds to respiratory difficulties such as collapsing trachea. Tracheal collapse is a condition which is characterized by loss in diameter of the airway due to changes in the structure of the trachea caused by lack of chondroitin and/or glycoproteins. The weakened cartilage allows the tracheal ring to flatten and the trachea collapses. A dry “honking” cough is characteristic of tracheal collapse. Exercise intolerance, tachypnea, or respiratory distress are common signs.¹⁹ The compounding veterinary pharmacist can combine several drugs that work synergistically to treat this condition because no one commercially available drug usually takes care of this condition. An example is a formula which combines theophylline, ephedrine, potassium iodide, phenobarbital, and isoproterenol into a flavored liquid. Drugs that suppress the respiratory system should be used very carefully in these dogs. One...more
Ear Infections in Dogs (CANINE OTITIS EXTERNA)
Canine otitis externa accounts for 10‐13% of veterinary hospital visits, according to an article in Today’s Veterinary Practice. One common characteristic among breeds that have a tendency toward this condition is pendulous pinnae, or floppy ears. It is especially common in breeds such as Spaniels and Retrievers but also seen in Terriers and Poodles.Breeds that have stenosis of the external ear canal or hirsutism can also be affected. The ears restrict proper air flow into the ear canal, which sets up a moist environment that is conducive for bacterial and fungal growth. Excessive swimming without proper drying of the ears can also set up this type of environment in the ear. This is seen in breeds such as Retrievers that are used in waterfowl hunting. Additionally, overzealous cleaning of the ears by owners trying to prevent otitis can actually predispose the canine to the condition. Atopy (atopic dermatitis, eczema, immune...more
Feather picking in pet birds is an obsessive, destructive behavior pattern whereby a bird plucks, amputates, chews or, in some other way, destroys some or most of its feathers that it can reach with its beak.
- Environmental: Inappropriate cage size, Lack of sunlight, stressful noises
- Nutritional (most common): Nutritional absence of Zn, Mg, Mn and Vitamin A
- Underlying Disease: Feather/Skin follicle infection
- Separation Anxiety: Owners are gone on vacation and bird is alone.
Nutritional Imbalances Therapies:
Nutritional absence of Zn, Mn, Mg and Vitamin A. Imbalance occurs when there are all seed diets without fruits and veggies. It is seen with all types of birds except may be raptors.
Avian Veterinary Compounding Options:
Our C-4 Veterinary Compounding Specialists at Louisville Compounding Pharmacy can custom compound following formulations when...more